Today, a person lives in an era of work pressures and spends most of his time at work, which can be in an organization, Company, factory, School, Hospital, or other workplaces, Our life is full of pressures, and the individual tries hard to cope with these pressures by various means.
The individual stays within the work environment for a long time, he lives within an environment whose conditions are constantly imposed and results in a kind of anxiety and stress, so the individual learns what he has to do at work, the required way to work, the speed at which he is required to complete the work, and the people around him who force him to deal with them daily; which raises many feelings, most of which may be negative feelings and lead him to frustration and the emergence of conflicts and psychological pressures.
Work pressures produce two types of effects: positive effects and negative effects. the way to understand these pressures and the way to deal with them differs from one individual to another. some of them see these pressures as a challenge that they should invent ways to deal with and succeed in overcoming, and some of them give up easily and are driven towards frustration.
As a result, this topic has received great attention recently. researchers in the field of human resources have put the topic of job stress into study and research, because of the harmful psychological and physical effects it causes, and the resulting negative behaviors such as low loyalty and sense of belonging, increased absenteeism rates, and turnover rates, which in turn will negatively affect the performance and success of the organization.
First: the concept of work stress
The word stress or, as it is said, Stress has become a common word at present and arises as a result of the inability to do everything that is required or the inability to meet needs, stress can arise for any reason and lead to tension or physical or psychological disorder.
Researchers began to study the subject of work stress scientifically in 1932 by the researcher (Hans Seely), his study alerted to the dangers of stress in general and work stress in particular, but the real and significant shift in this area came after the lawsuit filed by James Carter against the American Motors Company, he filed a complaint against her because of what he suffered from psychological stress while working in this incident is due to the material complications that it causes to them.
A different set of definitions has been developed that have tried to clarify the meaning of work stressors, and in general practical stress refers to the state caused by human interaction with the work that he does, which results in changes within them and pushes them towards deviation from their normal functioning.
List of definitions in this area:
- Mohammed Ahmed Abdul-Jawad in the Book (Managing Work and life stress): a set of stimuli present in the working environment of individuals, resulting in a set of reactions that appear in the behavior of individuals at work, in their psychological and physical condition, or their performance of their work; as a result of the interaction of individuals in their work environment that contains stressors.
- Tahir Maysara in the book (Work Stress and its impact on Family Relationships): the harmful reflection on human psychological and organic health; as a result of the increased requirements in the work environment that often exceed a person’s ability to give.
- Baron Baron: the professional stressors are used to denote two different situations, The first refers to the environmental conditions that surround the individual in the work environment and cause him distress and stress (external sources of stressors), and the second case refers to the internal reactions that occur due to the first.
It is necessary to mention the variety of job stressors, including:
1. Positive stressors:
Positive pressure is a motivation that pushes an individual to make more efforts to improve his performance and increase his skills to achieve success, and some organizations may exercise this type of pressure to maintain the activity of employees and their good performance and keep them away from laziness and boredom.
2. Negative stressors:
It is she who causes catastrophic effects on human life and behavior and prevents him from achieving balance in his life, these stresses lead to stress and anxiety, low morale, the appearance of various negative emotions, and everything that would confuse his life and not make him feel calm and happy.
In terms of how long work stress lasts:
3. Simple stressors:
They do not last for a long time, they may last from minutes to only hours and are often caused by harassment of work personnel or minor events.
4. Average stressors:
It extends from hours to days and may result from harassment at work, being a little late in getting work done or visiting a manager.
5. Long stressors:
It is the compounding stressors that cause long-term negative effects, and the individual may end up losing his job because of them.
Second: the causes of work stress
1. Personality of the individual:
The personalities of individuals differ in responding to different working conditions, so there is a disparity between the ability of one individual and another individual to withstand the pressure of work and to carry out work tasks and the degree of commitment and degree of coping with different pressures.
2. Social pressures surrounding the individual:
Due to social pressures, an individual may be unable to cope with working conditions.
3. Individual needs and requirements vary from time to time:
Which reflects on his work and his adaptation to it.
4. Large workload:
A large or excessive workload indicates the presence of functional tasks and duties that are beyond the individual’s ability and he is not able to fulfill or fulfill them to the fullest, which causes him fatigue, exhaustion, and often shyness.
The individual’s abilities, scientific qualifications, and skills may be greater than the job he holds, and this causes him to feel bored, lose motivation, and any sense of motivation to continue working.
6. Unclear job role:
An individual may work in a job with unclear tasks and not specific to the amount of work required to be completed, overlapping and complex work, or there is ambiguity in the way of work, and this makes the individual lose the desire to accomplish them or try to evade them.
7. Role conflict:
The functional tasks assigned to an individual are multiple and conflict with each other or they do not fit into the personality of the individual and his principles.
8. Failure to achieve the career goals that an individual sets for himself:
When an individual sets himself certain goals and associates them with time to achieve them and fails, or when he does not achieve any significant progress in the job, or when he compares himself with others whose career is characterized by success, all this will generate pressure and in many cases lead to frustration.
9. Inappropriate workplace:
Physical ergonomics may be poor in terms of safety requirements, noise, cleanliness, and others.
10. Bad organizational climate:
The work environment may be bad from a social and psychological point of view, conflicts and disagreements may abound so that the workplace turns into a war between individuals in exchange for the absence of cooperation and team spirit.
- Disqualification of the individual from important positions and non-participation in the decision-making process.
- Unclear career prospects and the absence of promotion from one’s own life.
- The disproportion of the remuneration given to the individual with the effort expended.
- Great responsibility rests on the shoulders of the individual and correlates what he provides with the success or failure of the organization.
- Changes in the work environment, such as changes in legislation and rules governing work or changes in the philosophy and policy of the organization.
- The external cultural invasion affects the lifestyle of society, including the work of the individual.
- Technological changes and the resulting change in the work environment cause anxiety and fear for individuals.
- Behavioral effects
Third: the effects of work pressure
1. Effects on an individual’s life:
The absence rate increases, the work turnover rate increases, tasks are completed more slowly, the tendency to deviation, addiction to alcohol and drugs, distraction and poor concentration, inability to think properly and make the right decision, miscalculation and judgment, and other not very good behaviors.
1. Physical effects:
High blood pressure and rapid heartbeat as a result of anger and constant stress, a sensation of dry mouth, and a feeling of discomfort, lethargy, and laziness.
2. Psychological effects:
Stress, anxiety, reaching the point of frustration, practicing aggressive behaviors, constantly feeling angry, sad, depressed, losing hope, and looking at the future pessimistically.
2. Effects of work stress in the organization:
The pressure of work does not only weigh on the individual, but also on the organization, for which the cost of work will rise, so the pressures affect the decision-making and decision-making process and the quality of these decisions, and the pressures may lead to work disruption, increased absenteeism rates among employees, work turnover rate and other behaviors that lead to an increase in the costs of the organization.
The success of an organization is usually based on the efforts of human resources working in it, The human element is the basis for any work within the organization, but there are often factors, whether inside the organization or outside, that affect the individual’s life, the problem of work pressures, and these pressures affect not only the individual and his life, but also the surrounding individuals, his family and the organization itself; so current studies are trying to find the best ways to deal with individuals within the organization and give them material and moral incentives in an attempt to avoid losing competencies, and the individual must develop his strategies to avoid falling victim to these pressures and try to complete his life properly it may pass by from Difficulties and obstacles.